Burns- An injury to tissues resulting from contact with heat, chemicals, electricity, friction, or radiant and electromagnetic energy; classified into three categories, depending on the number of tissue layers involved.
Frostbite- local tissue damage caused by extreme cold.
Sunburn- Burns caused by exposure to harmful UV radiation in sunlight.
Rule of Nines- One of the most commonly used methods of determining the extent of a burn injury on the body. (Legs-9%, Gentials-1%, Arms and Head-4.5%, Chest and Back-18%)
Classification of Burns:
First-Degree- Causes minor discomfort and some redding of the skin
Second-Degree- Involves the deep epidermal layers and always causes injury to the upper layers of the dermis
Third-Degree- Complete destruction of the epidermis and dermis


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1st Degree Burns 2nd Degree Burns 3rd Degree Burns


WHAT YOU SHOULD DO

Here are some tips and reminders that will protect your children from burns:
  • Don't hold a baby when you are cooking or drinking anything hot. The baby may grab for it and get burned if it spills.
  • Keep coffee pots, irons, hot foods, and boiling water away from the edge of the table or stove.
  • Turn pot handles toward the back of the stove so children can't reach them.
  • Never open the oven door with a child nearby.
  • Before putting your child into the bathtub, check the water temperature with your wrist.
  • Don't let children touch the faucet handles in the bathtub. They may turn on the hot water and get burned. Never leave a baby or young child alone in a tub.
  • Lower your hot water heater setting to low or medium (130 degrees F).
  • Use a cool mist humidifier instead of a steam vaporizer.
  • Put fireplace screens or guards around fireplaces, furnaces, or radiators. Keep space heaters out of your child's reach. Don't leave a child alone around fires of any kind.
  • Make sure your child's pajamas are flame-resistant.
  • If you smoke, don't leave lit cigarettes unattended. Dispose of them properly. Keep cigarette lighters and matches in a safe place where children can't reach them.
  • Install smoke detectors. Check them on a regular basis to make sure they are still working. Teach your children the best way to get out of the house in a fire.
  • Lock up liquids that may catch on fire, such as gasoline or kerosene. Leave them in the container that they came in and label them.
  • Before putting a child in a car seat, check the temperature of the seat, especially any metal parts. Cover the car seat with a towel when you park in the sun.
  • Allow only older children to use fireworks and only with adult supervision.
  • Keep children away from electrical cords. Replace frayed cords. Cover unused electrical outlets with childproof covers (available in hardware stores and baby departments).
  • Test the temperature of infant food heated in a microwave oven before feeding it to a baby.
  • To prevent sunburn, always apply sunscreen to children before going out in the sun.

No matter the severity of the burn you must try to insure this
  1. Prevent shock.
  2. Ease pain.
  3. Reduce the risk of infection

1st degree burns-Simply cool the burn under cold, running water for several minutes to stop the burn from getting worse. You can give the injured person an aspirin (if he or she has no medical complications) and soothe the area with some aloe vera ointment or burn cream

2nd Degree Burns-
  1. Submerge the burned area in cold water (as cold as possible). If the burn occurred on the chest or back, pour cold water from a bucket or a hose directly onto the burn.
  2. Keep the cold water on the burn until medical help arrives. If the burns are minor, keep them in cold water for at least five minutes.
  3. If the burns are extensive, you can apply a cool, wet cloth to the affected area—but only if the dressing is wrapped in plastic. Cloth tends to adhere to burns, and it can worsen the pain if a physician has to pull it off to treat the burn.
  4. If the burns are minor, you can treat them in the same way you'd treat first-degree ones. You won't need medical help. Simply pat the area dry and place a loose sterile cloth over it.

3rd Degree Burns-
  1. Call for medical attention if access is immediately available.
  2. Treat for shock, if necessary. This is especially true if the burn is caused by electric shock.
  3. If you suspect chemical burning, especially from dangerous acids, you need to take first aid care one step further in order to stop the burn from spreading. As soon as you've called for medical help, pick up the phone and call the local poison control center. As with any type of poison ingestion or inhalation or burn, these specialists can tell you exactly what you need to do. (See Poisoning: When to Induce Vomiting, and Treating the Most Common Overdoses for more on poisoning.)
  4. Remove any tight clothing or jewelry that's not on the actual burned area. With third-degree burns, there's always the danger of swelling which can cause blood vessels to constrict and create other complications.
  5. You can submerge the burned area under cold running water, but avoid ice. Too much cold can exacerbate shock.
  6. Pat the area dry and place a loose, sterile cloth over the area.
  7. If hands are burned, elevate them, keeping them higher than the heart. This can be done by gently placing pillows under the injured person's arms.
  8. Burned legs and feet should also be elevated to keep blood flowing smoothly.
  9. Keep the injured person still. Do not let him or her walk around.
  10. If the face is burned, keep checking for breathing complications. If airways seem to be blocked, follow the instructions for performing mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
  11. Above all, get the burned victim to a hospital. Third-degree burn victims are prime candidates for infection, pneumonia, and other complications, and they need medical attention fast.



Dress Properly to Prevent Frostbite
To prevent frostbite, avoid prolonged exposure to cold weather. If you must be outside, wear several thin layers of clothing -- they hold body heat more efficiently than just one bulky layer. Wear a weatherproof outer layer to stay dry. Wear gloves, scarves, insulated waterproof boots, and a warm hat. Shield your face against any strong gusts of wind. Drink plenty of fluids and eat regularly. Change out of any wet clothes immediately. Avoid smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol or caffeine as these can prevent your blood from circulating enough to keep your body warm.



Three Stages of Frostbite
The first stage is frostnip, characterized by a feeling of pins and needles and your skin turning very white and soft. If you catch frostbite at this stage, you won't suffer any permanent damage. It can be treated by soaking in warm water or breathing your warm breath on the affected area. Superficial frostbite is the next stage. Your skin now feels numb, waxy and frozen to the touch. Blistering may occur and ice crystals may form in your skin cells, which permanently changes the cell structure.
The last stage is deep frostbite, the most serious stage, which can lead to permanent damage, blood clots, gangrene, even loss of your affected limb. All tissues, including blood vessels, muscles, nerves, and bone may be frozen. You won't be able to feel a thing. It is critical to seek medical attention as quickly as possible to minimize the damage.



When are You at Risk of Frostbite?
Typically frostbite happens during periods of prolonged exposure to temperatures below 32 degrees Farenheit, but it can happen in a matter of minutes in extremely cold conditions (like below zero). Cold winds increase the likelihood of frostbite, as the air circulates body heat away from the skin more quickly. Other factors that can lower the body’s defenses include hunger, dehydration, and exhaustion. Frostbite most commonly affects the toes, fingers, ears, chin, cheeks, and nose -- body parts that are often left uncovered


Frostbite First Aid
In the absense of professional medical attention, here are a few first-aid tips for frostbite:
  • Bring the person into a warm room as quickly as possible and rest the injured areas
  • If feet are frostbitten, avoid walking and elevate them
  • Remove any wet or restrictive clothing that could hinder circulation
  • Warm the area by soaking it in warm (not hot) water for at least 35 to 45 minutes, or until the affected area feels warm and sensation returns
  • Do not rub
  • During the warming process, the patient may complain of severe pain and the frostbitten area may swell; this is normal
  • Afterward, cover the area with a clean bandage or cloth
  • Do not begin the warming process if the person will be exposed to the cold again
  • Do not use dry heat, such as a heating pad, fire, radiator, or heater to warm the area; because the skin is numb, it will not feel the heat and could get burned


external image moz-screenshot.jpgFrostbitten_hands.jpgFirst Stage Frostbite


frostbite.jpgSecond Stage Frostbite


frostbite-725422.jpgThird Stage Frostbite



Bibliography:
Anatomy and Physiology Book

http://www.healthsquare.com/mc/fgmc0316.htm


http://life.familyeducation.com/wounds-and-injuries/first-aid/48249.html?page=2&detoured=1
http://www.safety.com/articles/preventing-frostbite.html